Somerset House's concrete spiral staircase stuns the world

As early as the 15th century, Somerset House was originally a huge Tudor palace. By the 18th century, it had come to be the head office of several of the most crucial companies in Britain at that time, such as the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, the Royal Society, and the British Antiquities Culture, to name a few.

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The refurbishment of the west wing of Somerset House is part of the overall refurbishment program and is being undertaken by the Somerset House Trust. One of the tasks in this part was to create an arts center and to release the upper floors for offices and conferences, which required a new entrance hall and an 18-meter-high staircase connecting the five floors.

The collision of history and contemporary times became the core of the architect's design of this staircase. Due to space limitations, the staircase adopts the form of a spiral. The around 3.7-meter-wide spiral steps are constructed from white ultra-high-performance concrete and spiral to an elevation of 5 floors.

Unlike ordinary staircases supported by walls, this spiral staircase is built around a grid-like lightweight stainless steel core. Engineers could pull off such a whimsical structure because the steps are made of ultra-high-performance concrete, which is harder, lighter and more stable than regular concrete.

waterproof agent 

One of the important admixtures in concrete - waterproofing agent

It is a concrete admixture that can reduce the permeability of concrete under hydrostatic pressure. It can significantly improve concrete's impermeability and waterproofing function, with an impermeability grade of up to P25 or above. It also has the effects of retarding setting, early strength, water reduction, and crack resistance and can improve the workability of freshly mixed mortar.

A brand-new sophisticated waterproofing product is a waterproofing representative, also known as Waterproofing Significance, Leakage Blocking King, and Leak Obstructing Spirit. It is divided right into two types: organic and inorganic. It has a lengthy waterproof life, broad application array, straightforward construction, low cost, safety, and environmental protection. A high-grade fatty acid mortar waterproofing agent is one of them.

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How to improve the efficiency and reliability of epoxy resin cast insulators

With the advancement of technology, various new materials continue to emerge, among which epoxy resin cast insulators, as a high-performance insulation material, have been widely used in many fields. Epoxy resin cast insulators are insulation materials made of epoxy resin.

Epoxy Resin Insulators

(epoxy resin cast insulators)

The characteristics of epoxy resin cast insulators

1. Excellent insulation performance: Epoxy resin cast insulators have excellent insulation performance and can provide extremely high insulation resistance, effectively preventing the passage of current and ensuring the safe and stable operation of electrical appliances.

2. Good mechanical properties: This material has high compressive and tensile strength and can withstand various mechanical stresses.

3. Stable chemical properties: Epoxy resin cast insulators have excellent chemical stability and good corrosion resistance to chemicals such as acids, alkalis, and salts, which can maintain their performance stability for a long time.

4. Good thermal stability: Epoxy resin cast insulators have excellent thermal stability, which can maintain the stability of their physical and chemical properties in high temperature environments, and are not prone to deformation or degradation.

The application areas of epoxy resin cast insulators

1. Power industry: Epoxy resin cast insulators play an important role in the field of high-voltage and ultra-high voltage electrical appliances, mainly used for insulation of equipment such as transformers, circuit breakers, and isolating switches.

2. Electronics industry: Epoxy resin cast insulators are widely used in the electronics industry to manufacture electronic components and circuit boards, providing a stable and reliable insulation environment to ensure the normal operation of electronic equipment.

3. Chemical industry: Insulation and anti-corrosion of equipment such as pipelines and storage tanks in corrosive environments.

4. Aerospace: Insulation systems used for high-end equipment such as airplanes and satellites.

5. New energy field: Epoxy resin cast insulators are used as insulation materials for wind power generation and solar panels in the field of new energy, providing guarantees for the stable operation of these renewable energy equipment.

Epoxy Resin Insulators 1

(epoxy resin cast insulators)

How to improve the efficiency and reliability of epoxy resin cast insulators

1. Choose the appropriate formula: The epoxy resin formula has the best performance according to the application requirements.

2. Optimize production process: In order to obtain high-quality epoxy resin cast insulators, it is necessary to ensure consistency and stability in the casting and curing processes. This means that in the production process, it is necessary to strictly follow the prescribed process flow to ensure the performance and quality of the product.

3. Strengthen quality testing: In order to ensure the reliability and stability of epoxy resin cast insulators, regular performance tests must be conducted. Through these tests, potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corresponding measures can be taken to ensure that the performance and quality of the product meet the requirements.

4. Reasonable installation and use: To avoid performance degradation caused by improper operation, install and use according to specifications.

5. Maintenance and upkeep: Regular maintenance and upkeep to extend its service life.

How to overcome common problems and malfunctions in epoxy resin cast insulators

1. Cracking problem: It may be caused by temperature changes or mechanical stress. Suggest strengthening quality control during production and selecting appropriate formulas and processes.

2. Performance degradation: Long-term use or improper maintenance may lead to performance degradation. Regular performance testing and maintenance are recommended.

3. Installation issue: Incorrect installation may cause mechanical damage or performance degradation. Ensure installation and use by specifications.

Epoxy Resin Insulators 2

(epoxy resin cast insulators)


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Background and Significance of Indium Selenide

Research background of indium selenide:

Indium selenide is a direct bandgap semiconductor material with a wide adjustable band gap covering visible light to near-infrared bands. This gives indium selenide a wide range of applications in optoelectronic devices and solar cells. Due to its large band gap and direct band gap structure, indium selenide has a high optical absorption coefficient and low optical loss in the range of visible to near-infrared bands, making it one of the ideal materials for preparing high-performance optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

 Indium selenide has high electron mobility and good thermal stability. Compared with traditional silicon-based materials, indium selenide has higher electron mobility and better electrical properties, which can transmit more information in a shorter time, thus improving integrated circuits' operating speed and efficiency. At the same time, the thermal stability of indium selenide is also good, and it can maintain stable performance at a higher temperature.

In addition, indium selenide also has good chemical stability and mechanical properties. For example, indium selenide can be used as a gas sensor to monitor environmental toxic gases and as a catalyst in organic synthesis and sewage treatment fields.

indium selenide.jpg

Performance of indium selenide thin films in the field of photoelectric detection:

Indium selenide (InSe) films show excellent photoelectric properties in photoelectric detection. Indium selenide has a large band gap and high optical absorption coefficient, which can realize efficient photoelectric conversion in the visible light range to the near-infrared band.

Specifically, indium selenide films show the following advantages in the field of photoelectric detection:

High sensitivity: Indium selenide film has excellent photoelectric response performance and can achieve high-sensitivity photoelectric conversion at low light intensity. 

Fast response speed: Indium selenide films have fast carrier mobility and diffusion length, which can complete the photoelectric conversion process in milliseconds. This gives indium selenide film potential application value in high-speed photodetector, photoelectric switch, and other fields.

High stability: Indium selenide film has good chemical and thermal stability and can maintain stable photoelectric performance under harsh environmental conditions. This gives the indium selenide film a wide application prospect in high temperature, high humidity, corrosion and other environmental conditions.


Prospect Market of indium selenide:

With the continuous expansion of photoelectric devices and the solar cell market, indium selenide is one of the key materials, and the market demand for it is also growing. Photoelectric devices and solar cells are the core components of modern energy and information technology and are widely used in communication, energy, environmental monitoring, and other fields. The market demand for optoelectronic devices and solar cells will continue to grow, which will also drive the further development of the indium selenide market.

With the continuous progress of microelectronics and integrated circuit technology, the application of indium selenide in microelectronics and integrated circuits will also be more widely developed. Indium selenide has the advantages of high electron mobility and good thermal stability, making it one of the ideal materials for manufacturing high-performance microelectronic devices and integrated circuits. With emerging technologies such as 5G, the Internet of Things, and artificial intelligence, the demand for high-performance microelectronic devices and integrated circuits will also grow, further driving the demand for the indium selenide market.

In addition, with the continuous development of sensors and catalysis and other fields, the application of indium selenide in sensors and catalysis and other fields will be more widely promoted. With the continuous progress of industrial automation, environmental monitoring, medical technology, and other aspects, the demand for sensors and catalysis will continue to grow, providing more opportunities for developing the indium selenide market.

However, the further development of the indium selenide market also faces some challenges. First of all, the preparation process of indium selenide is complicated, and the cost is high, which limits its application in some fields. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the preparation process further, reduce the production cost, and improve the cost performance and market competitiveness of indium selenide. Secondly, the application field of indium selenide is more specialized, and it is necessary to conduct in-depth research and development for the needs of different fields to expand its application range.

Supplier of bismuth powder:

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Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) :A remarkable ceramic material with a unique hexagonal crystal structure

Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a remarkable ceramic material with a unique hexagonal crystal structure. Its exceptional properties make it ideal for various applications, including aerospace engineering and high-performance electronics. With its superior strength, durability, and resistance to extreme temperatures, ZrB2 is a choice for those seeking the best-advanced materials. It is a refractory material with a high melting point and high hardness. Due to its exceptional properties, ZrB2 is a popular choice for various engineering applications. This article provides a comprehensive overview of zirconium diboride, including its properties, synthesis, applications, and future trends.

Properties of Zirconium Diboride

Zirconium diboride (ZrB2)

Zirconium diboride is a ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure. It has the following properties:

  1. High melting point: ZrB2 has a high melting point of around 2700°C, making it suitable for high-temperature applications.

  2. High hardness: ZrB2 has a hardness of around 1000–1500 HV, higher than many steels and tool alloys.

  3. Lightweight: ZrB2 has a low density of around 3.4–3.5 g/cm³, making it an attractive material for light applications.

  4. High electrical and thermal conductivity: ZrB2 has high electrical and thermal conductivity, making it suitable for electronic and heat-resistant applications.

  5. High corrosion resistance: ZrB2 is highly resistant to acids, alkalis, and other chemicals.

  6. ZrB2's low thermal expansion coefficient makes it suitable for thermal shock-resistant applications.

  7. 164205783444cc6b

Synthesis of Zirconium Diboride

Zirconium diboride can be synthesized using various methods, including solid-state reaction, molten salt electrolysis, and gas-phase reaction. The most common way is solid-state reaction, which involves reacting zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and boron oxide (B2O3) at high temperatures. The reaction typically occurs in a vacuum or inert atmosphere to prevent oxidation of the reaction product. The reaction equation is: 3ZrO2 + 4B2O3 → 3ZrB2 + 2ZrO3.

Applications of Zirconium Diboride

Because of its unique properties, zirconium diboride is used in various engineering fields.

  1. Aerospace and aircraft components: The high-temperature capability and light weight of ZrB2 make it suitable for use in aerospace and aircraft components such as turbine blades, vanes, and other high-temperature structural components.

  2. Automotive components: ZrB2 can be used for automotive parts that require high-temperature resistance and lightweight performance, such as exhaust systems and turbochargers.

  3. Electrical and electronic components: The high electrical and thermal conductivity of ZrB2 makes it suitable for use in electrical contacts, electrodes, and heat sinks in electronic components.

  4. Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs): ZrB2 is commonly used as a reinforcing phase in CMCs, which have excellent high-temperature strength and chemical resistance.

  5. Wear-resistant coatings: The high hardness and corrosion resistance of ZrB2 make it an excellent material for wear-resistant coatings in various industrial applications.

Properties and Application of Hafnium Carbide

Hafnium carbide (HfC), is a chemical compound with a distinct character. It has many uses.

1. Hafnium Carbide: Its Properties

Hafnium carburide is a grayish powder that belongs in the metal carbide category. It has high melting points, good hardness and high thermal stability.

Physical property

Hafnium carburide crystals have a face-centered cubical structure and a lattice coefficient of 0.488nm. It is a hard material with a melting temperature of 3410 degrees Celsius.

Chemical property

Hafnium carburide is chemically stable, and it is not soluble in water or acid-base solutions. It is not easily affected by high temperatures. This material is stable at high temperatures. Hafnium carburide has a high radiation resistance, and is therefore suitable for use in nuclear reactors and particle acceleraters.

2. Hafnium Carbide Application

Hafnium carbide is used widely in many industries due to its high melting points, high hardness as well as good thermal and chemical properties.

Electronic field

Hafnium carburide is widely used in electronic fields, and it's a key component of electronic glue. Hafnium carburide can be used to increase the conductivity and adherent of electronic paste. Hafnium can be used to improve the reliability of electronic devices by using it as a sealant.

Catalytic field

Hafnium carburide is a great catalyst for many chemical reactions. One of the most common uses is in auto exhaust treatment, which reduces harmful gas emissions. Hafnium carburide is used as an hydrogenation catalyst and denitrification catalyst, among other things.

The optical field

Hafnium carbide is a transparent material that can be used for optical components and fibers. It can enhance the durability and transmission of optical components, and reduce light losses. Hafnium carbide can be used for key components such as lasers, optoelectronics and optical devices.

Ceramic field

Hafnium carbide can be used to improve the density and hardness of ceramic materials. It can be used to produce high-performance materials, like high-temperature and structural ceramics. Hafnium carbide can be used to grind and coat materials.


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Application Fields of Gallium Nitride

The wide-gap semiconductor material GaN is widely used due to its excellent electrical, optical and physical properties.

1.Semiconductor light

Gallium Nitride is widely used in semiconductor lighting. The high transparency, reflectivity, luminescence and high brightness of gallium nitride material make it ideal for high-performance, LED lamps. LED lamps offer a higher level of luminous efficiency than fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, as well as a longer life span. This makes them suited for use in many fields, including indoor and exterior lighting, displays, automobile lighting, etc.

In semiconductor lighting materials such as gallium nitride are used primarily as substrates for the LED chips. LED chips, the main components of LED lighting, are directly responsible for the overall performance. They determine the LED light's luminous efficacy and service life. Gallium Nitride is an excellent substrate material because it has high thermal conductivity. It also has high chemical stability and stability. It improves the LED chip's luminous stability and efficiency, as well as reducing manufacturing costs.

2.High-temperature electronic devices

Gallium Nitride is also widely used for high-temperature electronics devices. Gallium nitride, which has high electron saturation rates and high breakdown electric fields, can be used for electronic devices that work in high-temperature environments.

Aerospace is a harsh field and it's important to have electronic devices that work reliably in high temperature environments. Gallium nitride as a semiconductor high-temperature material is used to make electronic devices like transistors and field effect transistors for flight control and control of fire systems. In the area of power distribution and transmission, high-temperature devices like power electronic converters and switches can also be manufactured using gallium nitride. This improves the efficiency and reliability of equipment.

3.Solar cells

Gallium nitride solar cells also receive a lot attention. High-efficiency solar panels can be produced due to its high transparence and electron saturation rate.

Silicon is the main material in most traditional solar cells. Silicon solar cells are inexpensive to manufacture, but have a narrow bandgap (about 1eV), which limits their efficiency. Gallium-nitride solar cell have a greater energy gap width (about 2.30eV), so they can absorb more sun and have a higher conversion efficiency. The manufacturing cost of gallium-nitride cells is low. They can achieve the same conversion efficiency for a lower cost.


Gallium Nitride is also widely used as a detector. They can be used to manufacture high-efficiency detectors like spectral and chemicals sensors.

Gallium Nitride can also be used as a material to make X-ray detectors that are efficient and can be applied in airports or important buildings for security checks. Gallium nitride is also used for environmental monitoring to produce detectors like gas and photochemical sensor, which detect environmental parameters, such air quality, pollutants, and other environmental parameters.

5. Other applications areas

Gallium nitride can be used for many different applications. For example, galium nitride is used to make microwave and high frequency devices such as high electronic mobility transistors and microwave monolithic combined circuits. These are used in radar, communications, and electronic countermeasures. Also, gallium nitride It can also be used for the manufacture of high-power lasers and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics.

What is Lithium stearate powder

Lithium stearate is a crystalline form of lithium.

Lithium stearate has the chemical formula LiSt. It is a white powder that is solid at room temperatures. It is highly lipophilic, and at low concentrations can produce high light transmission. This compound is soluble only slightly in water and readily in organic solvents, such as acetone and ethanol. The high melting and flashpoint of lithium stearate makes it stable and thermally safe at high temperatures. The lithium stearate also has good chemical resistance and is resistant to acids and bases, as well as oxidants, reductants and reducing agents. Lithium is less toxic than other metals, but should still be handled with care. An excessive intake of lithium can lead to diarrhoea or vomiting as well as difficulty breathing. Wearing gloves and goggles during operation is recommended because prolonged exposure to lithium can cause eye and skin irritation.

Lithium stearate:

Surfactant: Lithium Stearate Surfactant, lubricant, and other ingredients are used to make personal care products, such as shampoos, soaps, body washes, and cosmetics. It has excellent foam properties and good hydrolysis stabilty, resulting in a gentle and clean washing experience.

Lithium stearate has an important role to play in polymer syntheses. It can be used both as a donor and a participant in the formation of polymer chains. These polymers have good mechanical and chemical properties, making them ideal for plastics, rubber fibers, etc.

Lithium stearate can be used in cosmetic formulations to soften and moisturize the skin. It enhances moisturization, and makes the skin smoother. The antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties of lithium stearate can also help with skin problems.

Paints & Coatings: Lithium is stearate can be used to thicken and level paints & coatings. It helps control the flow a coating and its properties. It is resistant to weather and scratches, which makes the coating durable.

Applications of lithium stearate include drug carriers, excipients, and stabilizers. It can enhance the stability of medications and also improve their taste and solubility.

Agriculture: Lithium is a good fertilizer carrier. It can also be used to protect plants. It increases the efficiency of fertilizers and improves plant disease resistance.

Lithium stearate may be used in petrochemicals as a lubricant or release agent. As a catalyst in petroleum cracking, lithium stearate improves cracking yield and efficiency.

Lithium stearate production method :

Chemical synthesis method

Lithium stearate can be synthesized through a series chemcial reactions that combine stearate and lithium metal. In order to get the lithium metal reacting with the stearate, they are heated together in an organic solvant. After washing and drying, the pure lithium-stearate product is obtained.

Following are the steps for synthesis.

(1) Lithium metal and stearate in organic solvents, such as ethanol heated stirring to fully react.

(2) The reaction solution must be cooled in order to precipitate lithium stearate.

Filter the crystal lithium stearate and wash with water to neutral.

(4) The dried crystals will be used to make lithium stearate.

Chemical synthesis is a mature technology that offers high efficiency in production and product purity. However, organic solvents have an environmental impact and waste is generated during production.

Methode de fermentation biologique

In biological fermentation, microorganisms such as yeast are used in the medium to produce lithium. The principle behind this method is that microorganisms use their metabolic pathways to produce stearic and react with metals (such as lithium) to create lithium stearate.

These are the steps that you will need to take in order to produce your product.

The microorganisms will be inoculated onto the medium which contains precursor substances to fermentation culture.

(2) The filtrate is used to produce a solution that contains stearic acids.

Add metals (such as the lithium ions) into the solution with stearic to ensure that they fully react.

(4) The reaction mixture is separated, then washed and dried.

The benefits of biological fermentation include environmental protection, less waste discharge and a longer production process. However, the conditions for production are also higher.

Prospect Market of Lithium Stearate:

The application of lithium in personal care will continue to play a major role. It plays an important part in cosmetics, soaps, and shampoos as it is a surfactant. As people's standards of living improve and the cosmetics sector continues to expand, lithium stearate demand will gradually rise.

It is also becoming more popular to use lithium stearate for polymer synthesis. It can be used both as a donor and a participant in polymer chain formation. As polymer materials science continues to develop, the demand of lithium stearate increases.

Lithium stearate's application in agricultural, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and other fields is expanding. In the pharmaceutical sector, lithium stearate may be used as a carrier, excipient or drug stabilizer. In agriculture, the lithium stearate is used to protect plants and as a carrier for fertilizer. In petrochemicals, lithium isostearate acts as a lubricant or release agent. In these areas, the demand for lithium will increase as technology advances.

But the outlook of the lithium stearate market is not without its own challenges. In order to produce lithium stearate, it is necessary to use lithium metal. This increases the cost. Aside from that, the applications of lithium is limited, with a concentration in agriculture, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. To expand the scope of application and market demand for lithium stearate, it is important to continually develop new applications and markets.

Lithium stearate powder price :

Many factors influence the price, such as the economic activity, the sentiment of the market and the unexpected event.

You can contact us for a quotation if you're looking for the most recent lithium stearate price.

Lithium stearate powder Supplier :

Technology Co. Ltd. has been a leading global supplier of chemical materials for over 12 years.

The chemical and nanomaterials include silicon powder, graphite or nitride particles, zinc sulfide (sulfide of zinc), boron powder (3D printing powder), etc.

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More than a hundred schools in the UK have been closed due to the risk of collapse

In the UK, more than 100 schools were closed because of the danger of collapse

In the UK, many schools use Autoclaved aerated cement (RAAC). This is a concrete material that is lighter.

In 2018, RAAC was found to be used in the roofs and buildings of a primary-school in southeast England. The material's safety hazards were raised when the roof collapsed.

BBC reported that RAAC materials were widely used from the 1950s until the mid-1990s in areas such as roof panels, and had a lifespan of around 30 years.

According to reports, the risk of building collapse is not only present in schools, but also in hospitals, police station, courts and other public structures. RAAC material has been found.

The Royal Dengate Theatre at Northampton is temporarily closed after RAAC material was found.

According to NHS, RAAC has been detected in 27 hospital building.

The NHS chief has been asked for measures to be taken to prevent collapse.

BBC reported that since 2018 the British government has warned schools to be "fully ready" in case RAAC is found within public buildings.

The Independent reported Jonathan Slater a former senior education official, who said that Sunak, Prime Minister in 2021, approved budget reductions to build schools.

Nick Gibb is a senior official at the Department of Education. He said that the Department of Education asked for PS200m annually for school maintenance. Sunak was the former chancellor of exchequer and provided just PS50m a year.

The report also states that despite Sunak having promised to renovate at least 50 schools every year, in the main reconstruction plan of the government only four schools were renovated.

The British National Audit Office chief also criticized this crisis. He claimed that the Sunak government had adopted a "plaster-method" of building maintenance.

He believes the government's underinvestment has forced schools to close, and that families are now "paying the cost".

Paul Whitman is the secretary-general of National Association of Principals. He said that the public and parents would perceive any attempt to blame individual schools on the government as a "desperate attempt by the federal government to divert its attention from their own major mistakes."

Whitman claimed that the classroom has become completely unusable. Whitman blamed the British Government for the problem. "You can't change it no matter how many distractions and diversion you use."

London Mayor Sadiq khan said that the government should be open and transparent. This will reassure parents, staff, children, and others.

BBC reported schools in the UK were pushing forward with inspections and assessments. Children who had been suspended because of school building issues will be temporarily housed, or they can learn online.

Research on valley selective circularly polarized light absorption properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide: Promoting the application of molybdenum disulfide in the field of optoelectronics

Nature Communications recently published the article "Valley selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disorder," which was jointly written by researchers Feng Ji and Professor Wang Enge from the International Center for Quantum Materials Science of Peking University and the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Semiconductor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.This research is the first to theoretically predict and experimentally confirm the valley selective circularly polarized light absorption properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide, which is of great significance for developing the new generation of electronics - valley electronics.


This study has discovered the optical rotation selectivity of valleys in materials for the first time, which is of great significance for developing the new generation of electronics - valley electronics. Previously, the biggest challenge in applying valley electronics was that valley polarization had not yet been achieved in single-layer atomic thin films, and the valley selective circularly polarized light absorption characteristics of single-layer molybdenum disulfide precisely solved this problem. The optical Hall effect of the material has built a bridge between optoelectronics and valley electronics applications in single-layer molybdenum disulfide.

The first author of this work is Cao Ting, an undergraduate student from Yuanpei College under the guidance of Professor Wang Enge and Researcher Feng Ji. The corresponding originator of this paper is Professor Feng Ji and Professor Wang Enge. Other authors include Professor Shi Junren and Professor Niu Qian from the International Center for Quantum Materials Science at Peking University. Liu Baoli and Tan Hengping, researchers from the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Semiconductor of the Academia Sinica, designed and completed experiments to verify the theory.







Due to its excellent performance, the Molybdenum disulfide is widely used in various lubrication situations for sliding, rolling, and reciprocating friction. Due to its solid lubricant properties can work in extreme environments such as high and low temperatures, high vacuum, and strong radiation, making it an important lubricating material in high-tech fields such as aerospace, nuclear energy, and petrochemicals.


Molybdenum disulfide can be used as an additive to improve the performance of certain high-temperature oil products, fuels, and hydraulic oils. It can effectively decrease the friction coefficient, reduce wear, and improve oil products' load-bearing capacity and thermal stability.

Pigments and Coatings:

As a black pigment, molybdenum disulfide is widely used in fields such as coatings, inks, and plastics. It has bright colors, pure tones, good covering and coloring power.


Electronics and Semiconductor Industry:

Molybdenum disulfide is used as a conductive and heat sink material at high temperatures in the electronics and semiconductor industries. It has marvelous thermal stability and electrical insulation performance, which can meet the requirements of high temperature, high purity, and high reliability in these industries.

Composite materials:

Molybdenum disulfide can be added as a reinforcing agent or filler to various composite materials, such as plastics, rubber, and ceramics. It can improve composite materials' mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical properties.

Chemical industry:

In the chemical industry, molybdenum disulfide can be used as a catalyst, dehydrating agent, and desulfurizer. It has marvelous chemical stability and corrosion resistance and can play an efficient role in various chemical reactions.



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SCR Thyristor: Principles, Characteristics and Maintenance of Semiconductor Switches

A brief introduction to thyristors

A thyristor is a powerful electronic device. It is a three-terminal component composed of four layers of PNPN semiconductor materials. Its forward working voltage is equal to the reverse breakdown voltage. This is represented by the letter "K" in the circuit, which means "control." Its primary function is to convert alternating current into direct current. A controlled rectifier (SCR) is a semiconductor device with unique functions.

Thyristor mainly consists of three parts:

Substrate, gate, and emitter. The function of the substrate is to convert the input DC current into the corresponding pulsating DC, and the entrance is a multi-sub diffusion transistor (MOSFET), which forms a barrier capacitance internally by adding an electric field between the two electrodes of a PN junction. A conductive channel that generates carriers, and finally, a field-effect transistor (FET) with a metal oxide as the gate electrode. In use, the above three types of semiconductor diodes or transistors with different functions are usually combined and used as an integrated integrated circuit (IC). The first part is called the main chip or single-chip integrated circuit; the remaining two parts are called auxiliary parts or Discrete components.


Characteristics of silicon-controlled thyristor

(1) Voltage-ampere characteristics: Since the equivalent resistance between the drain and the source of the thyristor is minimal when it is turned on when the applied reverse voltage exceeds a specific value, the entire tube can be turned on quickly, and a large forward current IDI can be obtained. Therefore, It's called a fast recovery diode.

(2) Temperature characteristics: Due to thermal balance conditions, ordinary thyristors can only work within a specific temperature range. For commonly used bidirectional thyristors, the maximum allowable junction temperature is 85° when operating at the rated reverse peak current. C; for high-power bidirectional thyristors, the temperature should be limited to between 150 and 200°C.

(3) Frequency characteristics: The frequency characteristics of ordinary unidirectional thyristors, like standard bipolar transistors, also change with the change in power supply frequency. However, it should be noted that due to switching losses, some compensation measures must be taken when working at high frequencies. In addition, there are a few reverse-conducting, low-frequency, low-power swapping tubes (such as Shorell diodes, etc.) manufactured using unique processes.


Things to note when using silicon-controlled thyristors include:

1. Environmental requirements: The use environment should be free of severe vibration and impact, and the environmental medium should be free of impurities and atmosphere that corrode metal and damage insulation. At the same time, the module die operating junction temperature must be -40℃∽125℃, the ambient temperature must not be higher than 40℃, and the ambient humidity must be less than 86%.

2. Heat dissipation requirements: The module must be equipped with a radiator before use, and the selection of the radiator should comply with relevant regulations. Heat dissipation can use natural cooling, forced air cooling, or water cooling. When forced air cooling, the wind speed should be greater than six m⁄s.

3. Correct selection: For high-power thyristors, heat dissipation devices, and cooling conditions must be installed according to the manual requirements to ensure the tube temperature during operation does not exceed the junction temperature.

4. Prevent overvoltage and overheating: SCRs with a core current of more than 5A must be installed with a radiator and ensure the specified cooling conditions. To ensure good contact between the radiator and the thyristor tube, a layer of silicone oil or grease should be applied to help with good heat dissipation.

5. Current control: When selecting the rated current of the thyristor, in addition to considering the average current passing through the component, you should also pay attention to factors such as the size of the conduction angle during regular operation, heat dissipation, and ventilation conditions. At the same time, it is necessary to prevent forward overload and reverse breakdown of the thyristor control electrode.

6. Overcurrent protection: Generally, a fast fuse can be installed in the AC power supply for protection. The melting time of the fast fuse is extremely short. Generally, the rated current of the fuse is selected with 1.5 times the rated average current of the thyristor.


As an essential semiconductor device, thyristor is vital in power electronics, motor control, power supply, and other fields. However, some things need to be paid attention to when using thyristors, such as voltage and current control, heat dissipation, over-current protection, and prevention of voltage shocks. Proper use and maintenance of thyristors can ensure the regular operation of the equipment and extend its service life.




PDDN Photoelectron Technology Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise focusing on the manufacturing, R&D and sales of power semiconductor devices. Since its establishment, the company has been committed to providing high-quality, high-performance semiconductor products to customers worldwide to meet the needs of the evolving power electronics industry.


It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. PDDN will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by sea, or by air. If you are looking for high-quality scr thyristor, please feel free to send us inquiries and we will be here to help you.

Metal Alloy 8.92g/Cm3 High Purity Polished Copper Plate

Copper products exhibit good electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity. They are also ductile, resistant to corrosion, and have a high wear resistance. They are widely used by the electricity, electronics and energy industries.

Metal Alloy High Purity Copper Plate, 8.92g/cm3,
Brush, mirrors, hairline, mill, oiled, bright, shiny, sandblast.


Interior decoration: ceilings, walls, furniture, cabinets, and elevator decoraction.

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Metal alloy 8.92g/cm3 high purity polished copper plate properties

Alternative Names Copper Plate
CAS Number N/A
Compound Formula
Molecular Mass N/A
Appearance N/A
Melting Point N/A
Solubility N/A
Density 8.92g/cm3
Purity 99.95%, 99.99%, 99.995%
Size The following are examples of customized products:
Bolding Point N/A
Specific Heating N/A
Thermal Conduction N/A
Thermal Expander N/A
Young's Module N/A
Exact Count N/A
Monoisotopic Mash N/A

Health & Safety Information for Metal Alloy 8.92g/cm3 High Purity Polised Copper Plate

Safety Advisory N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Flashing point N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Declarations N/A
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Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate

Tungsten alloy heavy plate has low thermal expansion. It is also known for its high density, high radiation absorption, and high electrical and thermal conductivity. It is used widely in the aerospace and military industries.

About Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate:
Powder metallurgy produces compact ingots from high purity tungsten. After powder metallurgy, a series further deformations are made and heat treatments are applied until the final products have been produced.

Wear resistance, low thermal expansion and high density.

Often used to produce machining tools such as lathes and dices in the aerospace, medical, and military industries.

We have a wide range of tungsten-alloy plates in different grades and sizes. Contact us for any of your needs.

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Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate Properties

Alternative Names Tungsten Alloy Plate
CAS Number N/A
Compound Formula N/A
Molecular Mass N/A
Appearance N/A
Melting Point N/A
Solubility N/A
Density 18.5g/cm3
Purity 99.95%
Size The following are examples of customized products:
Bold point N/A
Specific Heating N/A
Thermal Conduction N/A
Thermal Expander N/A
Young Modulus N/A
Exact Mass N/A
Monoisotopic Mash N/A

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate Health & Safety Information

Safety Advisory N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Flashing point N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Declarations N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany N/A

Research on valley selective circularly polarized light absorption properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide: Promoting the application of molybdenum disulfide in the field of optoelectronics

SCR Thyristor: Principles, Characteristics and Maintenance of Semiconductor Switches

High Purity Chromium Chip Chromium Sheet Chromium Flake CAS 7440-47-3,99.95%

Metal Alloy 8.92g/Cm3 High Purity Polished Copper Plate

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate

High Purity Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 Powder CAS 1314-87-0, 99.99%

Metal Alloy 18g/cm3 High Density Tungsten Alloy Ball

High Purity Molybdenum Boride MoB2 Powder CAS 12006-99-4, 99%

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Metal Alloy High Density Tungsten Alloy Rod Grind Surface Tungsten Alloy Bar

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High Purity Chromium Diboride CrB2 Powder CAS 12007-16-8, 99%

High Purity Tungsten Silicide WSi2 Powder CAS 12039-88-2, 99%

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Supply Magnesium Granules Mg Granules 99.95%

High Purity 3D Printing 304 Stainless Steel Powder

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