Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) :A remarkable ceramic material with a unique hexagonal crystal structure

Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a remarkable ceramic material with a unique hexagonal crystal structure. Its exceptional properties make it ideal for various applications, including aerospace engineering and high-performance electronics. With its superior strength, durability, and resistance to extreme temperatures, ZrB2 is a choice for those seeking the best-advanced materials. It is a refractory material with a high melting point and high hardness. Due to its exceptional properties, ZrB2 is a popular choice for various engineering applications. This article provides a comprehensive overview of zirconium diboride, including its properties, synthesis, applications, and future trends.

Properties of Zirconium Diboride

Zirconium diboride (ZrB2)

Zirconium diboride is a ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure. It has the following properties:

  1. High melting point: ZrB2 has a high melting point of around 2700°C, making it suitable for high-temperature applications.

  2. High hardness: ZrB2 has a hardness of around 1000–1500 HV, higher than many steels and tool alloys.

  3. Lightweight: ZrB2 has a low density of around 3.4–3.5 g/cm³, making it an attractive material for light applications.

  4. High electrical and thermal conductivity: ZrB2 has high electrical and thermal conductivity, making it suitable for electronic and heat-resistant applications.

  5. High corrosion resistance: ZrB2 is highly resistant to acids, alkalis, and other chemicals.

  6. ZrB2's low thermal expansion coefficient makes it suitable for thermal shock-resistant applications.

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Synthesis of Zirconium Diboride

Zirconium diboride can be synthesized using various methods, including solid-state reaction, molten salt electrolysis, and gas-phase reaction. The most common way is solid-state reaction, which involves reacting zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and boron oxide (B2O3) at high temperatures. The reaction typically occurs in a vacuum or inert atmosphere to prevent oxidation of the reaction product. The reaction equation is: 3ZrO2 + 4B2O3 → 3ZrB2 + 2ZrO3.

Applications of Zirconium Diboride

Because of its unique properties, zirconium diboride is used in various engineering fields.

  1. Aerospace and aircraft components: The high-temperature capability and light weight of ZrB2 make it suitable for use in aerospace and aircraft components such as turbine blades, vanes, and other high-temperature structural components.

  2. Automotive components: ZrB2 can be used for automotive parts that require high-temperature resistance and lightweight performance, such as exhaust systems and turbochargers.

  3. Electrical and electronic components: The high electrical and thermal conductivity of ZrB2 makes it suitable for use in electrical contacts, electrodes, and heat sinks in electronic components.

  4. Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs): ZrB2 is commonly used as a reinforcing phase in CMCs, which have excellent high-temperature strength and chemical resistance.

  5. Wear-resistant coatings: The high hardness and corrosion resistance of ZrB2 make it an excellent material for wear-resistant coatings in various industrial applications.

Eight properties of molybdenum disulfide revealed: a dark horse in the field of lubricating materials

1. The relationship between friction coefficient and industrial and mining conditions:

The friction coefficient of graphite is very low, generally 0.03-0.09 in the atmosphere, the minimum is 0.006-0.03, and the maximum is 0.15-0.25, which is lower than graphite. In vacuum, the minimum is 0.001, and the maximum is 0.2, that is, it has better performance in vacuum. lubricity. And it decreases with the increase of temperature and load, and decreases with the increase of sliding speed, and can reach a minimum of less than 0.07. The relative humidity of the air has an impact on the friction coefficient of calcium disulfide. When the relative humidity is lower than 15%, the friction coefficient is low. When the relative humidity reaches 16%, the friction coefficient reaches its peak.


2. Lubricity:

Molybdenum disulfide has a hexagonal crystal layered structure. The crystal structure is composed of three planes: sulfur-molybdenum-sulfur. This structure is like a "sandwich bread", with two sulfur atoms sandwiching a molybdenum atom in the middle. This thin layer of molybdenum disulfide is extremely small. Within the thickness of only 0.25 mm, there are about 40,000 "pieces", that is, molybdenum disulfide monomer molecules, or cleavage planes (or slip planes) or There are 1598 slip surfaces in 0.001 mm (ie = 1/1000 mm = 1 micron), that is, there are 799 slip surfaces in a 0.5 micron thick layer. This is because the strong covalent bond between the sulfur atom and the molybdenum atom in a single molybdenum disulfide molecule in the thin layer is difficult to separate, and there is only a weak van der Waals bond between the sulfur atom and the sulfur atom between the two monomer molybdenum disulfide molecules. The connection (i.e. low adhesion) is easy to split. Therefore, in such an extremely thin layer, for example, there are 799 slip surfaces in a 0.5 micron ultra-thin layer. Such many low shear force and low viscosity slip surfaces make the surface of the two relatively moving objects The friction between the molybdenum disulfide layers is transformed into friction between the molybdenum disulfide layers, which plays a good lubrication effect.

3. Chemical stability:

Molybdenum disulfide has strong corrosion resistance. Except for nitric acid, aqua regia, boiling hydrochloric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, pure oxygen, fluorine, and chlorine, it has no effect on other acids, alkalis, and drugs. In alkalis with a pH value greater than 10 In neutral aqueous solutions, it can slowly oxidize and is unstable to strong oxidants. It is insoluble in cold, hot and boiling water. It is also stable in petroleum and synthetic lubricants such as mechanical oil and grease, or in eco-friendly solvents such as ethanol and ether: it is stable to surrounding gases. In humid air at room temperature, oxidation is slight, but corrosive acids can be formed. After molybdenum disulfide is added to grease, it is difficult to oxidize without full contact with oxygen in the air, and the wear resistance is improved.


4. Thermal stability:

Molybdenum disulfide has good thermal stability, with a melting point of 1185°C. In the atmosphere, it can ensure good lubrication performance in the range of -184-399℃. Oxidation begins at 400°C, oxidation is significant at 450°C, and oxidation is rapid at 540°C. The final products of oxidation are molybdenum trioxide and sulfur dioxide. While it is not completely transformed into molybdenum trioxide, it still has lubricity. After the formation of molybdenum trioxide, friction coefficient increases. The Mohs hardness of molybdenum trioxide is 2-2.5, and the maximum friction coefficient in the atmosphere is 0.2. Therefore, most people now believe that molybdenum trioxide cannot be an abrasive, because it is also included in the list of 56 solid lubricants. Molybdenum dioxide can be corroded by the alkali metals lithium, sodium, rubidium, calcium, and francium. Molybdenum disulfide is different from graphite when used in vacuum. It has good lubricity and only begins to decompose at 1093°C. This is because when molybdenum disulfide is in the air, the active sulfur atoms on its crystal facets easily interact with it. Oxygen in the air reacts. When it reaches the vacuum, its temperature will be close to the decomposition temperature. It is impossible for removing the oxide layer generated by molybdenum disulfide after adsorbing oxygen. This determines the performance of molybdenum disulfide in vacuum conditions. It can still maintain low bonding between crystals, ensuring low friction performance. Especially under ultra-high vacuum conditions, when the temperature reaches 800°C, the friction coefficient not only does not increase, but decreases. Above 800°C, due to the phase change of the crystal, the lubrication ability gradually decreases. When it reaches 1093°C, it begins to break down. When molybdenum disulfide is transferred from vacuum to atmospheric conditions, the lubrication performance decreases. This is due to the moisture absorption of molybdenum disulfide. This is exactly the opposite of the situation where graphite absorbs moisture and exhibits a reduction in friction coefficient and improvement in lubrication performance. Molybdenum disulfide can still lubricate at low temperatures of -184°C or lower. The friction coefficient can remain unchanged until the temperature reaches -200°C. If the temperature is greater than -200°C, the friction coefficient increases exponentially.

Molybdenum disulfide will remove adsorbed water vapor at high temperatures, which will turn the oxide film on the active surface into a small number of hydroxide compounds. Due to the presence of hydrogen bonds, molybdenum disulfide will form an adhesive film on the metal surface. The adhesion ability decreases, so the ability of molybdenum disulfide to adhere to the metal surface at high temperatures is lower than at normal temperature. Therefore, when using it at high temperatures, we must consider improving the adhesion of molybdenum disulfide to the metal surface. The stronger the adhesion, the better the high-temperature lubrication performance.


5. Extreme pressure resistance:

Molybdenum disulfide has high pressure resistance, which is unequaled by other lubricating materials. It can still be made use of under very high pressures of 20,000 kg/cm2. The film of a general lubricating oil layer has already ruptured under such high pressure, and Loss of lubrication, causing metal surfaces to weld. The test results show that there is molybdenum disulfide between the metal surfaces. When the pressure increases to 32,000kg/cm2, in fact, this pressure has exceeded the yield point of a certain metal, but bite and welding still do not occur between the two metal surfaces. Molybdenum disulfide has been tested on a 2.5 micron film to withstand a contact stress of more than 28.000kg/cm2 and a friction speed of 40 meters/second. This high resistance to pressure is due to its material structure. The compressive strength of graphite is only 200-240000kg/cm2, and that of tungsten disulfide is only 21,000kg/cm2.

6. Adhesion

Molybdenum disulfide has strong adhesion to metals. Its attachment to the metal surface is through the surface of its sulfur atoms and the metal. When sulfur is directly combined with the metal, the binding ability is quite strong and it is not easy to peel off under general friction. However, it is usually not easy to adhere to unclean surfaces, such as surfaces contaminated by impurities, grease, etc. On the other hand, the molybdenum disulfide particle size is extremely fine, so it has a large surface area. The fine particles can easily fill in the uneven valleys on the metal surface. The large molybdenum disulfide contact surface will have a greater chance of contacting the metal. When "sulfur and metal" are in contact, the high heat of friction will cause the convex peaks on the metal surface to flow, causing the molybdenum disulfide molecules to combine with the metal and adhere to the metal surface to form an extremely thin layer of disulfide. The solid layer of molybdenum sulfide is thin. If the surface of molybdenum disulfide in contact with the metal is a smooth surface with high finish, due to the elastic-plastic deformation of the metal, the molybdenum disulfide will penetrate into the metal surface to form a solid film of molybdenum disulfide. This combination and adhesion are It is related to the unevenness of the metal surface, the length of application of molybdenum disulfide, and the high purity and fine particle size of molybdenum disulfide.


7. Conductivity:

The electrical conductivity of molybdenum disulfide is not as good as that of graphite. Its resistivity is 8.51*102 ohms per centimeter, which means it is a poor conductor compared with graphite. However, above normal temperature, as an inorganic substance, it should be said that the conductivity is quite good. But under normal conditions it is a poor conductor and non-magnetic body.

8. Radiation resistance:

Molybdenum disulfide has certain radiation resistance. R-ray radiation increases friction by 50% at room temperature. Neutron radiation does not damage the crystal lattice, so it still has a lubricating effect under the condition of radiation. Experiments have proved: Under the illumination condition of 7*108 Lun, the dynamic and static friction values of molybdenum disulfide and tungsten disulfide remain unchanged, while the dynamic and static friction coefficients of graphite increase greatly, and there are varying degrees of improvement in cloth wear resistance. Decrease, especially graphite has the largest decrease, and tungsten disulfide has the smallest decrease. Molybdenum disulfide is close to tungsten disulfide, that is, the wear amount has increased. The wear amount of graphite is 179.9*10-3 mm3, and the wear amount of molybdenum disulfide is 76.2*10-3 mm3, while tungsten disulfide is 66.4*10-3 mm3.



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Which is the best way to backfill a bathroom

The backfilling of the bathroom is a crucial part of any renovation. Backfilling is an essential part of bathroom renovations. Its goal is to stop leaks, protect the pipe, and increase the thermal insulation. In selecting bathroom materials, you should consider the following factors: the cost, construction difficulty, environmental protection, performance of insulation and backfill material.

There are five types of backfills available on the market: common slags, carbon-slags backfills (also known as overhead backfills), ceramics backfills and foam cements. We are confused about the different backfills.

Backfilling with slag can be cheaper, but because it is heavy and can cause the floor slab to crack easily, causing water to leak.

It is cheaper to use overhead backfill because you don't need as much material.

Since a few decades, foam cement backfilling has been popular. But does it come with any disadvantages?

For your information, here are five bathroom backfill materials with their advantages and disadvantages and some selection advice:

Building debris backfill


The advantages of slag backfill are its lower cost, ease of construction and certain thermal insulation properties.


Backfilling with construction waste will damage the waterproofing or pipeline due to its sharp edges. Construction waste is also relatively heavy and easily settled.


Has been eliminated. Do not recommend this method. The budget of the family is too small to use construction debris backfill. To protect the waterproofing of the ground, first use fine sand, then red bricks, to protect the pipeline. The backfill should be compacted in layers. Finally, mud-mortar to level the surface will provide good secondary drainage.

Carbon Dregs Backfill


Carbon slag as a backfill has many advantages, including its low cost, ease of construction, porous and lightweight structure, and excellent moisture absorption.


Carbon dregs are not as stable, they can easily deform and fall off. They're also flimsy.


In recent years, carbon slag has rarely been chosen as a backfill in bathrooms due to its negatives.

Ceramic Backfill


Ceramic backfill has many advantages including high strength, good insulation and corrosion resistance.


Before pouring in the ceramic, use lightweight bricks for layered partition. Divide the bathroom into several squares. Fill the squares with the ceramic, then place a reinforcing mesh with a diameter around one centimetre. Finally, level with cement mortar.

Suggestion: Look at your family's budget and take it into consideration.

Overhead Backfill


Backfilling with overhead backfill has many advantages, including its simplicity, stability, inability to deform and easy fall-off.


The labour cost of backfilling is higher because the construction cycle is longer. The bottom drain is located overhead and will make the sound of running waters more noticeable.

It is important to carefully consider whether the disadvantages of the situation outweigh any advantages.

Foamed Cement Backfill


Foamed cement is an increasingly popular backfill. It is also safe and eco-friendly. The raw material for cement foaming agents, plant-based fat acid, is both safe and environmentally friendly.

Benefits include good heat conservation, light weight, high strength and corrosion resistance. The backfilling process is greatly accelerated and reduced in cost, as it can be filled seamlessly and with very little effort.

Foamed cement can be mixed with cement and used to fix the pipe. If not, the pipe will easily float.


It is best to find a builder that has worked with foam cement or look up construction tutorials.


The majority of people backfill their bathrooms with foamed-cement. Its advantages are still quite obvious.

The five types of backfill for bathrooms all have advantages and disadvantages. In order to choose the right material for your bathroom backfill, you should consider several factors. You must always consider the environmental aspect when choosing bathroom backfill materials to ensure the decor of the bathroom is safe and sustainable.

Ti6Al4V powder is an important titanium alloy powd

Uses and properties of Ti6Al4V Particles

Ti6Al4V powder Due to its excellent chemical and physical characteristics and biocompatibility, titanium alloy is widely used in aerospace, medical, and industrial fields. This article will describe the properties, preparation techniques, and applications of titanium alloy powder Ti6Al4V.

1.Properties and Uses of Ti6Al4V Particle

It is an alloy of titanium, vanadium and aluminum. Ti-6Al-4V is its molecular formulation, and it has the following features:

Outstanding performance at all temperatures: Ti6Al4V is a powder with excellent overall performance. It has high strength and stiffness as well as good low-temperature toughness.

Good biocompatibility - Ti6Al4V is used in the medical field because of its biocompatibility.

Low density: This powder is lighter than stainless steel, nickel-based metals and other materials.

2.Preparation Ti6Al4V powder

The main preparation methods for Ti6Al4V include:

Melting Method: Ti6Al4V is made by melting metal elements like Ti, Al and V. Powder of Ti6Al4V is produced through ball milling processes and hydrogenation.

Methode d'alliagement mécanique: Using high-energy balls milling, metal elements, such as Ti, Al and V, are converted into Ti6Al4V alloy powder.

Vapor Deposition Method: Ti6Al4V is made by vaporizing elements like Ti, Al, or V onto a substrate using chemical vapor depositing or physical vapor depositing.

Method of ion implantation: Using ion implantation, metal elements like Ti, Al and V are implanted in the matrix to produce Ti6Al4V powder.

Use of Ti6Al4V Particles

The excellent physical and chemistry properties of Ti6Al4V and its biocompatibility make it a popular powder in aerospace, medical, and industrial fields.

Medical field

Ti6Al4V Powder is widely used in medical fields due to the biocompatibility of the powder and its high corrosion resistance. This powder is also used in the manufacture of dental implants, cardiovascular implants, and artificial joints. These include its good wear resistance and fatigue resistance. It also has a biocompatibility.

Industrial sector

Ti6Al4V Powder is used primarily in industrial fields to manufacture high-temperature materials and structural equipment. A good corrosion-resistant and high-temperature material, Ti6Al4V powder can be used in the manufacture of key components, such as those for chemical equipments, marine engineering equipment, power tools, and automobile manufacturing. To improve safety and reliability, it can be used to produce key components, such as offshore platforms and ships.

Aerospace field

Ti6Al4V Powder is widely used to produce high-temperature components for aircraft engines and aircraft. Because of its high strength and stiffness as well as good low temperature toughness and excellent corrosion resistance it can withstand extreme temperatures and harsh conditions during high-altitude flights. It can be used to make key parts like aircraft fuselages and wings, landing gears and engines.

Other fields

Other fields can use Ti6Al4V, such as construction, electronics, environmental protection. As an example, it can be used to make electronic components like high-efficiency electrodes and capacitors, as well as coatings, glass, and structural materials.


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Properties and Application of Hafnium Carbide

Hafnium carbide (HfC), is a chemical compound with a distinct character. It has many uses.

1. Hafnium Carbide: Its Properties

Hafnium carburide is a grayish powder that belongs in the metal carbide category. It has high melting points, good hardness and high thermal stability.

Physical property

Hafnium carburide crystals have a face-centered cubical structure and a lattice coefficient of 0.488nm. It is a hard material with a melting temperature of 3410 degrees Celsius.

Chemical property

Hafnium carburide is chemically stable, and it is not soluble in water or acid-base solutions. It is not easily affected by high temperatures. This material is stable at high temperatures. Hafnium carburide has a high radiation resistance, and is therefore suitable for use in nuclear reactors and particle acceleraters.

2. Hafnium Carbide Application

Hafnium carbide is used widely in many industries due to its high melting points, high hardness as well as good thermal and chemical properties.

Electronic field

Hafnium carburide is widely used in electronic fields, and it's a key component of electronic glue. Hafnium carburide can be used to increase the conductivity and adherent of electronic paste. Hafnium can be used to improve the reliability of electronic devices by using it as a sealant.

Catalytic field

Hafnium carburide is a great catalyst for many chemical reactions. One of the most common uses is in auto exhaust treatment, which reduces harmful gas emissions. Hafnium carburide is used as an hydrogenation catalyst and denitrification catalyst, among other things.

The optical field

Hafnium carbide is a transparent material that can be used for optical components and fibers. It can enhance the durability and transmission of optical components, and reduce light losses. Hafnium carbide can be used for key components such as lasers, optoelectronics and optical devices.

Ceramic field

Hafnium carbide can be used to improve the density and hardness of ceramic materials. It can be used to produce high-performance materials, like high-temperature and structural ceramics. Hafnium carbide can be used to grind and coat materials.


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Application Fields of Gallium Nitride

The wide-gap semiconductor material GaN is widely used due to its excellent electrical, optical and physical properties.

1.Semiconductor light

Gallium Nitride is widely used in semiconductor lighting. The high transparency, reflectivity, luminescence and high brightness of gallium nitride material make it ideal for high-performance, LED lamps. LED lamps offer a higher level of luminous efficiency than fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, as well as a longer life span. This makes them suited for use in many fields, including indoor and exterior lighting, displays, automobile lighting, etc.

In semiconductor lighting materials such as gallium nitride are used primarily as substrates for the LED chips. LED chips, the main components of LED lighting, are directly responsible for the overall performance. They determine the LED light's luminous efficacy and service life. Gallium Nitride is an excellent substrate material because it has high thermal conductivity. It also has high chemical stability and stability. It improves the LED chip's luminous stability and efficiency, as well as reducing manufacturing costs.

2.High-temperature electronic devices

Gallium Nitride is also widely used for high-temperature electronics devices. Gallium nitride, which has high electron saturation rates and high breakdown electric fields, can be used for electronic devices that work in high-temperature environments.

Aerospace is a harsh field and it's important to have electronic devices that work reliably in high temperature environments. Gallium nitride as a semiconductor high-temperature material is used to make electronic devices like transistors and field effect transistors for flight control and control of fire systems. In the area of power distribution and transmission, high-temperature devices like power electronic converters and switches can also be manufactured using gallium nitride. This improves the efficiency and reliability of equipment.

3.Solar cells

Gallium nitride solar cells also receive a lot attention. High-efficiency solar panels can be produced due to its high transparence and electron saturation rate.

Silicon is the main material in most traditional solar cells. Silicon solar cells are inexpensive to manufacture, but have a narrow bandgap (about 1eV), which limits their efficiency. Gallium-nitride solar cell have a greater energy gap width (about 2.30eV), so they can absorb more sun and have a higher conversion efficiency. The manufacturing cost of gallium-nitride cells is low. They can achieve the same conversion efficiency for a lower cost.


Gallium Nitride is also widely used as a detector. They can be used to manufacture high-efficiency detectors like spectral and chemicals sensors.

Gallium Nitride can also be used as a material to make X-ray detectors that are efficient and can be applied in airports or important buildings for security checks. Gallium nitride is also used for environmental monitoring to produce detectors like gas and photochemical sensor, which detect environmental parameters, such air quality, pollutants, and other environmental parameters.

5. Other applications areas

Gallium nitride can be used for many different applications. For example, galium nitride is used to make microwave and high frequency devices such as high electronic mobility transistors and microwave monolithic combined circuits. These are used in radar, communications, and electronic countermeasures. Also, gallium nitride It can also be used for the manufacture of high-power lasers and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics.

What is Lithium stearate powder

Lithium stearate is a crystalline form of lithium.

Lithium stearate has the chemical formula LiSt. It is a white powder that is solid at room temperatures. It is highly lipophilic, and at low concentrations can produce high light transmission. This compound is soluble only slightly in water and readily in organic solvents, such as acetone and ethanol. The high melting and flashpoint of lithium stearate makes it stable and thermally safe at high temperatures. The lithium stearate also has good chemical resistance and is resistant to acids and bases, as well as oxidants, reductants and reducing agents. Lithium is less toxic than other metals, but should still be handled with care. An excessive intake of lithium can lead to diarrhoea or vomiting as well as difficulty breathing. Wearing gloves and goggles during operation is recommended because prolonged exposure to lithium can cause eye and skin irritation.

Lithium stearate:

Surfactant: Lithium Stearate Surfactant, lubricant, and other ingredients are used to make personal care products, such as shampoos, soaps, body washes, and cosmetics. It has excellent foam properties and good hydrolysis stabilty, resulting in a gentle and clean washing experience.

Lithium stearate has an important role to play in polymer syntheses. It can be used both as a donor and a participant in the formation of polymer chains. These polymers have good mechanical and chemical properties, making them ideal for plastics, rubber fibers, etc.

Lithium stearate can be used in cosmetic formulations to soften and moisturize the skin. It enhances moisturization, and makes the skin smoother. The antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties of lithium stearate can also help with skin problems.

Paints & Coatings: Lithium is stearate can be used to thicken and level paints & coatings. It helps control the flow a coating and its properties. It is resistant to weather and scratches, which makes the coating durable.

Applications of lithium stearate include drug carriers, excipients, and stabilizers. It can enhance the stability of medications and also improve their taste and solubility.

Agriculture: Lithium is a good fertilizer carrier. It can also be used to protect plants. It increases the efficiency of fertilizers and improves plant disease resistance.

Lithium stearate may be used in petrochemicals as a lubricant or release agent. As a catalyst in petroleum cracking, lithium stearate improves cracking yield and efficiency.

Lithium stearate production method :

Chemical synthesis method

Lithium stearate can be synthesized through a series chemcial reactions that combine stearate and lithium metal. In order to get the lithium metal reacting with the stearate, they are heated together in an organic solvant. After washing and drying, the pure lithium-stearate product is obtained.

Following are the steps for synthesis.

(1) Lithium metal and stearate in organic solvents, such as ethanol heated stirring to fully react.

(2) The reaction solution must be cooled in order to precipitate lithium stearate.

Filter the crystal lithium stearate and wash with water to neutral.

(4) The dried crystals will be used to make lithium stearate.

Chemical synthesis is a mature technology that offers high efficiency in production and product purity. However, organic solvents have an environmental impact and waste is generated during production.

Methode de fermentation biologique

In biological fermentation, microorganisms such as yeast are used in the medium to produce lithium. The principle behind this method is that microorganisms use their metabolic pathways to produce stearic and react with metals (such as lithium) to create lithium stearate.

These are the steps that you will need to take in order to produce your product.

The microorganisms will be inoculated onto the medium which contains precursor substances to fermentation culture.

(2) The filtrate is used to produce a solution that contains stearic acids.

Add metals (such as the lithium ions) into the solution with stearic to ensure that they fully react.

(4) The reaction mixture is separated, then washed and dried.

The benefits of biological fermentation include environmental protection, less waste discharge and a longer production process. However, the conditions for production are also higher.

Prospect Market of Lithium Stearate:

The application of lithium in personal care will continue to play a major role. It plays an important part in cosmetics, soaps, and shampoos as it is a surfactant. As people's standards of living improve and the cosmetics sector continues to expand, lithium stearate demand will gradually rise.

It is also becoming more popular to use lithium stearate for polymer synthesis. It can be used both as a donor and a participant in polymer chain formation. As polymer materials science continues to develop, the demand of lithium stearate increases.

Lithium stearate's application in agricultural, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and other fields is expanding. In the pharmaceutical sector, lithium stearate may be used as a carrier, excipient or drug stabilizer. In agriculture, the lithium stearate is used to protect plants and as a carrier for fertilizer. In petrochemicals, lithium isostearate acts as a lubricant or release agent. In these areas, the demand for lithium will increase as technology advances.

But the outlook of the lithium stearate market is not without its own challenges. In order to produce lithium stearate, it is necessary to use lithium metal. This increases the cost. Aside from that, the applications of lithium is limited, with a concentration in agriculture, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. To expand the scope of application and market demand for lithium stearate, it is important to continually develop new applications and markets.

Lithium stearate powder price :

Many factors influence the price, such as the economic activity, the sentiment of the market and the unexpected event.

You can contact us for a quotation if you're looking for the most recent lithium stearate price.

Lithium stearate powder Supplier :

Technology Co. Ltd. has been a leading global supplier of chemical materials for over 12 years.

The chemical and nanomaterials include silicon powder, graphite or nitride particles, zinc sulfide (sulfide of zinc), boron powder (3D printing powder), etc.

Contact us today to receive a quote for our high-quality Lithium Stearate Powder.

More than a hundred schools in the UK have been closed due to the risk of collapse

In the UK, more than 100 schools were closed because of the danger of collapse

In the UK, many schools use Autoclaved aerated cement (RAAC). This is a concrete material that is lighter.

In 2018, RAAC was found to be used in the roofs and buildings of a primary-school in southeast England. The material's safety hazards were raised when the roof collapsed.

BBC reported that RAAC materials were widely used from the 1950s until the mid-1990s in areas such as roof panels, and had a lifespan of around 30 years.

According to reports, the risk of building collapse is not only present in schools, but also in hospitals, police station, courts and other public structures. RAAC material has been found.

The Royal Dengate Theatre at Northampton is temporarily closed after RAAC material was found.

According to NHS, RAAC has been detected in 27 hospital building.

The NHS chief has been asked for measures to be taken to prevent collapse.

BBC reported that since 2018 the British government has warned schools to be "fully ready" in case RAAC is found within public buildings.

The Independent reported Jonathan Slater a former senior education official, who said that Sunak, Prime Minister in 2021, approved budget reductions to build schools.

Nick Gibb is a senior official at the Department of Education. He said that the Department of Education asked for PS200m annually for school maintenance. Sunak was the former chancellor of exchequer and provided just PS50m a year.

The report also states that despite Sunak having promised to renovate at least 50 schools every year, in the main reconstruction plan of the government only four schools were renovated.

The British National Audit Office chief also criticized this crisis. He claimed that the Sunak government had adopted a "plaster-method" of building maintenance.

He believes the government's underinvestment has forced schools to close, and that families are now "paying the cost".

Paul Whitman is the secretary-general of National Association of Principals. He said that the public and parents would perceive any attempt to blame individual schools on the government as a "desperate attempt by the federal government to divert its attention from their own major mistakes."

Whitman claimed that the classroom has become completely unusable. Whitman blamed the British Government for the problem. "You can't change it no matter how many distractions and diversion you use."

London Mayor Sadiq khan said that the government should be open and transparent. This will reassure parents, staff, children, and others.

BBC reported schools in the UK were pushing forward with inspections and assessments. Children who had been suspended because of school building issues will be temporarily housed, or they can learn online.

SCR Thyristor: Principles, Characteristics and Maintenance of Semiconductor Switches

A brief introduction to thyristors

A thyristor is a powerful electronic device. It is a three-terminal component composed of four layers of PNPN semiconductor materials. Its forward working voltage is equal to the reverse breakdown voltage. This is represented by the letter "K" in the circuit, which means "control." Its primary function is to convert alternating current into direct current. A controlled rectifier (SCR) is a semiconductor device with unique functions.

Thyristor mainly consists of three parts:

Substrate, gate, and emitter. The function of the substrate is to convert the input DC current into the corresponding pulsating DC, and the entrance is a multi-sub diffusion transistor (MOSFET), which forms a barrier capacitance internally by adding an electric field between the two electrodes of a PN junction. A conductive channel that generates carriers, and finally, a field-effect transistor (FET) with a metal oxide as the gate electrode. In use, the above three types of semiconductor diodes or transistors with different functions are usually combined and used as an integrated integrated circuit (IC). The first part is called the main chip or single-chip integrated circuit; the remaining two parts are called auxiliary parts or Discrete components.


Characteristics of silicon-controlled thyristor

(1) Voltage-ampere characteristics: Since the equivalent resistance between the drain and the source of the thyristor is minimal when it is turned on when the applied reverse voltage exceeds a specific value, the entire tube can be turned on quickly, and a large forward current IDI can be obtained. Therefore, It's called a fast recovery diode.

(2) Temperature characteristics: Due to thermal balance conditions, ordinary thyristors can only work within a specific temperature range. For commonly used bidirectional thyristors, the maximum allowable junction temperature is 85° when operating at the rated reverse peak current. C; for high-power bidirectional thyristors, the temperature should be limited to between 150 and 200°C.

(3) Frequency characteristics: The frequency characteristics of ordinary unidirectional thyristors, like standard bipolar transistors, also change with the change in power supply frequency. However, it should be noted that due to switching losses, some compensation measures must be taken when working at high frequencies. In addition, there are a few reverse-conducting, low-frequency, low-power swapping tubes (such as Shorell diodes, etc.) manufactured using unique processes.


Things to note when using silicon-controlled thyristors include:

1. Environmental requirements: The use environment should be free of severe vibration and impact, and the environmental medium should be free of impurities and atmosphere that corrode metal and damage insulation. At the same time, the module die operating junction temperature must be -40℃∽125℃, the ambient temperature must not be higher than 40℃, and the ambient humidity must be less than 86%.

2. Heat dissipation requirements: The module must be equipped with a radiator before use, and the selection of the radiator should comply with relevant regulations. Heat dissipation can use natural cooling, forced air cooling, or water cooling. When forced air cooling, the wind speed should be greater than six m⁄s.

3. Correct selection: For high-power thyristors, heat dissipation devices, and cooling conditions must be installed according to the manual requirements to ensure the tube temperature during operation does not exceed the junction temperature.

4. Prevent overvoltage and overheating: SCRs with a core current of more than 5A must be installed with a radiator and ensure the specified cooling conditions. To ensure good contact between the radiator and the thyristor tube, a layer of silicone oil or grease should be applied to help with good heat dissipation.

5. Current control: When selecting the rated current of the thyristor, in addition to considering the average current passing through the component, you should also pay attention to factors such as the size of the conduction angle during regular operation, heat dissipation, and ventilation conditions. At the same time, it is necessary to prevent forward overload and reverse breakdown of the thyristor control electrode.

6. Overcurrent protection: Generally, a fast fuse can be installed in the AC power supply for protection. The melting time of the fast fuse is extremely short. Generally, the rated current of the fuse is selected with 1.5 times the rated average current of the thyristor.


As an essential semiconductor device, thyristor is vital in power electronics, motor control, power supply, and other fields. However, some things need to be paid attention to when using thyristors, such as voltage and current control, heat dissipation, over-current protection, and prevention of voltage shocks. Proper use and maintenance of thyristors can ensure the regular operation of the equipment and extend its service life.




PDDN Photoelectron Technology Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise focusing on the manufacturing, R&D and sales of power semiconductor devices. Since its establishment, the company has been committed to providing high-quality, high-performance semiconductor products to customers worldwide to meet the needs of the evolving power electronics industry.


It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. PDDN will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by sea, or by air. If you are looking for high-quality scr thyristor, please feel free to send us inquiries and we will be here to help you.

Metal Alloy 8.92g/Cm3 High Purity Polished Copper Plate

Copper products exhibit good electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity. They are also ductile, resistant to corrosion, and have a high wear resistance. They are widely used by the electricity, electronics and energy industries.

Metal Alloy High Purity Copper Plate, 8.92g/cm3,
Brush, mirrors, hairline, mill, oiled, bright, shiny, sandblast.


Interior decoration: ceilings, walls, furniture, cabinets, and elevator decoraction.

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Metal alloy 8.92g/cm3 high purity polished copper plate properties

Alternative Names Copper Plate
CAS Number N/A
Compound Formula
Molecular Mass N/A
Appearance N/A
Melting Point N/A
Solubility N/A
Density 8.92g/cm3
Purity 99.95%, 99.99%, 99.995%
Size The following are examples of customized products:
Bolding Point N/A
Specific Heating N/A
Thermal Conduction N/A
Thermal Expander N/A
Young's Module N/A
Exact Count N/A
Monoisotopic Mash N/A

Health & Safety Information for Metal Alloy 8.92g/cm3 High Purity Polised Copper Plate

Safety Advisory N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Flashing point N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Declarations N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany N/A

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate

Tungsten alloy heavy plate has low thermal expansion. It is also known for its high density, high radiation absorption, and high electrical and thermal conductivity. It is used widely in the aerospace and military industries.

About Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate:
Powder metallurgy produces compact ingots from high purity tungsten. After powder metallurgy, a series further deformations are made and heat treatments are applied until the final products have been produced.

Wear resistance, low thermal expansion and high density.

Often used to produce machining tools such as lathes and dices in the aerospace, medical, and military industries.

We have a wide range of tungsten-alloy plates in different grades and sizes. Contact us for any of your needs.

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Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate Properties

Alternative Names Tungsten Alloy Plate
CAS Number N/A
Compound Formula N/A
Molecular Mass N/A
Appearance N/A
Melting Point N/A
Solubility N/A
Density 18.5g/cm3
Purity 99.95%
Size The following are examples of customized products:
Bold point N/A
Specific Heating N/A
Thermal Conduction N/A
Thermal Expander N/A
Young Modulus N/A
Exact Mass N/A
Monoisotopic Mash N/A

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate Health & Safety Information

Safety Advisory N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Flashing point N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Declarations N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany N/A

High Purity Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 Powder CAS 1314-87-0, 99.99%

Antimony sulfide can be used to make matches, fireworks and colored glass. It is used in rubber manufacturing as a military and vulcanizing agent.Particle size : 100mesh
Purity: 99.99%

Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3:
Sulfide can be bismuth or powder. Template oxidation outside. It also dissolves in a nonvolatile hydroxide, is dissolved by concentrated hydrochloric acids, and releases hydrogen sulfur, but it's insoluble in the water. Pure triforium is a powdery yellow substance that does not form a shape. It is insoluble with water, acetic and acetic acids, but soluble with concentrated hydrochloric solution, alcohol or ammonium sulfide. In the firecrackers and fireworks, sulfur hydrazine is produced as hydrazine powder. This is a gray-black, black, or grayish powder that has a metal gloss. It's insoluble with water. poisonous.
The trioxidant can be obtained by reducing it with H2 and Fe, or in the air.
The trioxide is composed of bismuth in hydrochloric concentrated acid.
SB2S3 + 6H + 8Cl - 2SBCL4- + 3H2S |

Antimony Sulfide For Sale
Send an inquiry for the latest news Antimony Sulfide Prices are a little higher than usual. You can also contact us if you have any questions. buy Antimony Sulfide powder Sb2S3 Powder Bulk discounts are available.

Product Name Antimony Sulfide ; antimony sulphide
Antimony Sulfide chemical Formula : Sb2S3
Antimony Sulfide molecular weight: 339.68
Antimony Sulfide density : 4.12g/cm3
Antimony Sulfide Melting points : 550
Antimony Sulfide Boiling Point: 1080
Hardness of antimony Sulfide: Hb2-2.5
Antimony Sulfide Uses :
Used in many products, including military gunpowders, glass rubber, matchfireworks, friction equipment and frictional materials. It is used as a catalyst or additive, moisture-proof agent, heat stabilizer, and as an alternative to cerium oxide.

Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 CAS 1314870-0 Powder Analysis
Purity Zn Ag You Can Also Use This Al Mg Fe Bilingual Sb As you can see,
99.99% 5ppm 2ppm 5ppm 5ppm 5ppm 5ppm 5ppm 5ppm 5ppm

Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 - Powder produced?
There are three methods of preparation: Natural mine processing law (natural mining), antimony transformation method (antimony transformation method) and Direct synthesis.
Natural Mine Processing Law
Natural Hui is processed by screening, crushing, and other methods to produce sulfide-finished products.
Bamboo white conversion technique
Reaction equation:
SB2O3 + 2H2O + 4NA2S - SB2S3 - 8NAOH
The operation method is as follows: After mixing 1.80 kg SB2O3, Ca (OH) 2, 0.6 kg H2O 6, kg, it was heated at 80°C for 1 hour. 2.41 kg 60% Na2S dissolved in 3L of water was made Na2S solutions, then the solution was added under stirring to the above mixture, and was stirred continuously for 30 minutes. Then, 30% HCl is acidified in 3 h to a pH 0.4. It's then heated to 95 deg C and stirred.
Direct synthesis
Reaction equation:
3S + 2SB - SB2S3
Method of operation: The sulfur vapor, after melting the metal ruthenium (which is then compounded to trioxide), is introduced. The amount of sulfur used was 103% - 115% of stoichiometric. The stirring reaction lasted 0.3 - 1 h and the temperature of the reaction was maintained between 650 and 850 degrees C.

Applications Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 Powder:
Antimony sulfide is mainly used in the manufacture of matches and fireworks. It can also be found in colored glasses, antimony salts, and other types. Rubber industry uses it as a military worker and vulcanizer. The rubber can also be used in optoelectronic materials, which have a great application potential in solar cells and the photochemical chemistry. Production of paint pigments, fireworks, glass and explosives.

Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3:
Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 is affected by damp reunion, which will have an adverse effect on the powder's dispersion and use. Therefore, Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 must be packed in vacuum and kept in a dry and cool room. Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 Powder is also not to be exposed to stress.

Antimony Sulfide (Sb2S3) Powder Packing & Shipping:
Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 is available in many different packings depending on the quantity.
Antimony Sulfide (Sb2S3) Powder Packing: Vacuum packaging, 100g/bag, 500g/bag, 1kg/bag. 25kg/barrel. Or as per your request.
Antimony Sulfide (Sb2S3) Powder shipping: can be sent by air, sea, or express as quickly as possible after payment receipt.

Technology Co. Ltd., () is an established global chemical material manufacturer and supplier with more than 12-years of experience. They provide high-quality nanomaterials such as boride powders, nitride particles, graphite particles, sulfide particles, 3D printing materials, etc.
Looking for high quality antimony sulfide powder Send us a message or feel free contact us. ( brad@ihpa.net )

Antimony Sulfide Properties

Alternative Names antimony(III) sulfide, antimony trisulfide, amtimony trisulphide,
Sb2S3 powder is antimony sulphide.
CAS Number 1345-04-6
Compound Formula Sb2S3
Molecular Mass 339.72
Appearance Dark Gray Black Powder
Melting Point 550
Boiling Point 1150
Density 4.64 g/cm3
Solubility In H2O Insoluble
Exact Text 339.724246

Titanium Sulfide Health & Safety Information

Sign Word Danger
Hazard Statements H302-H331
Hazard Codes The following are some of the ways to get in touch with each other:
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Declarations N/A
Transport Information UN 1549/PG III

SCR Thyristor: Principles, Characteristics and Maintenance of Semiconductor Switches

High Purity Chromium Chip Chromium Sheet Chromium Flake CAS 7440-47-3,99.95%

Metal Alloy 8.92g/Cm3 High Purity Polished Copper Plate

Metal Alloy 18.5g/cm3 Polished Tungsten Heavy Alloy Plate

High Purity Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 Powder CAS 1314-87-0, 99.99%

Metal Alloy 18g/cm3 High Density Tungsten Alloy Ball

High Purity Molybdenum Boride MoB2 Powder CAS 12006-99-4, 99%

High Purity Nano Hafnium Hf powder CAS 7440-58-6, 99%

Metal Alloy High Density Tungsten Alloy Rod Grind Surface Tungsten Alloy Bar

High Purity Germanium Sulfide GeS2 Powder CAS 12025-34-2, 99.99%

High Purity Chromium Diboride CrB2 Powder CAS 12007-16-8, 99%

High Purity Tungsten Silicide WSi2 Powder CAS 12039-88-2, 99%

High Purity Titanium Sulfide TiS2 Powder CAS 2039-13-3, 99.99%

High Purity 3D Printing Powder 15-5 Stainless Steel Powder

High Purity Nano Ag Silver powder cas 7440-22-4, 99%

High Purity Silicon Sulfide SiS2 Powder CAS 13759-10-9, 99.99%

High Purity Zirconium Nitride ZrN Powder CAS 25658-42-8, 99.5%

Supply Magnesium Granules Mg Granules 99.95%

High Purity 3D Printing 304 Stainless Steel Powder

High Purity Colloidal Silver Nano Silver Solution CAS 7440-22-4

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Sulfide powder: Molybdenum sulfide, zinc sulfide, bismuth sulfide;

Oxide powder: ITO, ATO, iron oxide, titanium oxide, manganese oxide, copper oxide;about.jpg

Carbide powder: titanium carbide, manganese carbide, titanium carbonitride, hafnium carbide;

Nitride powder: Aluminum nitride, hafnium nitride, magnesium nitride, vanadium nitride;

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Hydride powder: Hafnium hydride, vanadium hydride, titanium hydride, zirconium hydride.etc.

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